The results show several potential benefits of using the AVIVE™ Water Treatment Solution in a water treatment process. Benefits were seen in terms of reducing concentrations of potentially harmful chlorine disinfection by-products, improvements in water esthetics, suppression of microbial activity, and the ability of the AVIVE™ treatment to remain a stable and active disinfectant under conditions similar to those found in hot water heaters.
A pilot-scale study was conducted in the town of Killaloe, Ontario to evaluate the performance of the AVIVE™ Water Treatment Solution, using Huwa-San Peroxide (HSP) as an alternative to chlorine-based potable water disinfection methods.
HSP has several benefits compared to conventional chlorine treatments including reducing concentrations of harmful disinfection by-products such as THMs, ability to maintain a residual peroxide concentration to avoid possible re-contamination of water, and an improvement in the esthetics of potable water at the tap.
The study was designed to examine and quantify four aspects of HSP:
- Ability to reduce or eliminate chlorination disinfection by-products
- Suitability in controlling water quality
- Ability to suppress microbial activity within water distribution lines, and
- Stability under heating conditions similar to those found within domestic hot water heaters.
During the study, HSP was used to replace sodium hypochlorite – a source of chlorine – as the secondary disinfection agent at the Killaloe water treatment plant. Water sampling took place at the water treatment plant and at several locations along the water distribution line from both cold and hot water taps.
Samples were taken before the introduction of HSP to establish baseline levels and then over four months following replacement of sodium hypochlorite by HSP. The stability of HSP in heated water was investigated at the laboratory-scale.
Following the introduction of HSP to the Killaloe water treatment plant, THM concentrations were lowered by up to 75% compared to those generated using sodium hypochlorite in the secondary treatment stage.
Sampling also indicated that water quality was not negatively impacted by HSP and that the treated water met the enhanced monitoring criteria as stipulated by the Ministry of the Environment.
Microbial activity, as indicated by measurements of adenosine triphosphate concentrations (ATP), was lowered in treated water leaving the treatment plant, indicating the microbial suppressive capacity of HSP. Finally, HSP was found to be stable in hot water, with observed decreases in HSP concentrations in heated, chlorinated water being tentatively explained through a quenching of free chlorine rather than being related to the instability of the HSP itself.